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:: OECD Urban policy Reviews (Korea - 2012) ::
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OECD Urban Policy Reviews (Korea-2012)

published in 2015 with the effort of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and translated by Dr. Hossein Mohammadpour Zarandi is a work investigating experience of economic developments in South Korea and the position of cities in this issue.

In the first chapter of this book the economic growth of South Korea is overviewed and a path that the country has come since 1960 is reviewed. South Korea economy has experienced one of the fastest growths in the world and it was resistant against shocks and world economic crisis. Link of this economic growth and its relation with urbanization particularly the pioneer role of Seoul metropolis are issues explained in this chapter carefully.

In the following, the micro and macro-economic indicators of South Korea, its statistics and documentation and strategies, which this country achieved this level of development by implementing them, are presented. Also in this chapter, brief introduction of comprehensive national strategy of green growth and green transport were discussed.

Second chapter devotes to the national policies for urban development in South Korea. Continuous terms of urban policies of South Korea, growth pole strategy, industrial renovation, decentralization and quantitative balanced growth used in this country during a certain period of time are the issues that have been dealt with them.

In the following, strengthening coordination and integration of urban policies in South Korea, principal priorities of these policies, comprehensive and inter-sectoral of urban development, coordination between local governments and correspondence of urban environment with developments of city population and investigating racial and cultural issues of cities have been discussed.

Development and compilation of a special urban strategy for big Seoul, strengthening competitiveness of big cities out of capital area, development of growth hubs by promoting innovation and reproducing economic functions in cities and backward areas are the other issues in this chapter. Urban modeling and promoting evaluation methods in order to be informed planning and policy-making and generally upgrading evaluation culture are the rest of topics discussed in this chapter.

The third chapter entitled “processes and challenges” in urban structure of South Korea considers rapid process of economy in this country. Economy of Korea could pass global financial crisis by presenting the biggest financial stimulus package among OECD countries. Korea economic model was faced limitations such as heavy reliance on imports and low level of the rate of labor productivity. Quantity and quality of these issues are in this chapter in detail. In the following the process of urbanization of South Korea is discussed from 1960 onwards and urbanization cycle of this country, which it was similar to undeveloped or developed countries in some periods, were analyzed.

Unbalanced urbanization pattern and Seoul capital dominance as a dominant city on South Korea urban system are the other issues of this chapter. In the final part of this chapter, main challenges of Korean cities such as population aging and decreasing workforce in urban areas, environmental concerns, increasing energy consumption level, greenhouse gasses emission and other pollutions and climate changes are explained in this chapter.

The 4th chapter considers analysis and investigation of green growth strategy referred in the first chapter. The focus of this chapter is on the local government participation in the South Korea national development strategy in order to access to green and sustainable growth. In 2008, South Korea compiled its clear and comprehensive strategy so as to access to green growth and carbon reduction during half of the century. This strategy is retrieved from all environmental, social and economic realities of the country. In this chapter, quantity and quality of this strategy, the role of local governments, and legal and organizational framework of implementing this strategy are discussed.

Medium-term and short-term plans compiled under this strategy such as national mechanism for climate change plan and restoration project of four major rivers of country and also development plan of economic growth modern motors are the other titles of this chapter.

Final part of this chapter considers the manner of South Korea life quality improvement and promotion of its global status, and challenges facing urban green growth plan like political gap, administrative and executive issues and informational gap.

  
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