OECD Urban Policy Reviews (Korea-2012)
published in 2015 with the effort of
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and translated by Dr.
Hossein Mohammadpour Zarandi is a work investigating experience of economic
developments in South Korea and the position of cities in this issue.
In the first chapter of this book
the economic growth of South Korea is overviewed and a path that the country
has come since 1960 is reviewed. South Korea economy has experienced one of the
fastest growths in the world and it was resistant against shocks and world
economic crisis. Link of this economic growth and its relation with
urbanization particularly the pioneer role of Seoul metropolis are issues
explained in this chapter carefully.
In the following, the micro and
macro-economic indicators of South Korea, its statistics and documentation and
strategies, which this country achieved this level of development by
implementing them, are presented. Also in this chapter, brief introduction of
comprehensive national strategy of green growth and green transport were
Second chapter devotes to the
national policies for urban development in South Korea. Continuous terms of
urban policies of South Korea, growth pole strategy, industrial renovation,
decentralization and quantitative balanced growth used in this country during a
certain period of time are the issues that have been dealt with them.
In the following, strengthening
coordination and integration of urban policies in South Korea, principal
priorities of these policies, comprehensive and inter-sectoral of urban
development, coordination between local governments and correspondence of urban
environment with developments of city population and investigating racial and
cultural issues of cities have been discussed.
Development and compilation of a
special urban strategy for big Seoul, strengthening competitiveness of big
cities out of capital area, development of growth hubs by promoting innovation
and reproducing economic functions in cities and backward areas are the other
issues in this chapter. Urban modeling and promoting evaluation methods in
order to be informed planning and policy-making and generally upgrading
evaluation culture are the rest of topics discussed in this chapter.
The third chapter entitled
“processes and challenges” in urban structure of South Korea considers rapid
process of economy in this country. Economy of Korea could pass global
financial crisis by presenting the biggest financial stimulus package among
OECD countries. Korea economic model was faced limitations such as heavy
reliance on imports and low level of the rate of labor productivity. Quantity
and quality of these issues are in this chapter in detail. In the following the
process of urbanization of South Korea is discussed from 1960 onwards and
urbanization cycle of this country, which it was similar to undeveloped or
developed countries in some periods, were analyzed.
Unbalanced urbanization pattern and
Seoul capital dominance as a dominant city on South Korea urban system are the
other issues of this chapter. In the final part of this chapter, main
challenges of Korean cities such as population aging and decreasing workforce
in urban areas, environmental concerns, increasing energy consumption level,
greenhouse gasses emission and other pollutions and climate changes are
explained in this chapter.
The 4th chapter considers analysis
and investigation of green growth strategy referred in the first chapter. The
focus of this chapter is on the local government participation in the South
Korea national development strategy in order to access to green and sustainable
growth. In 2008, South Korea compiled its clear and comprehensive strategy so
as to access to green growth and carbon reduction during half of the century.
This strategy is retrieved from all environmental, social and economic
realities of the country. In this chapter, quantity and quality of this
strategy, the role of local governments, and legal and organizational framework
of implementing this strategy are discussed.
Medium-term and short-term plans
compiled under this strategy such as national mechanism for climate change plan
and restoration project of four major rivers of country and also development
plan of economic growth modern motors are the other titles of this chapter.
Final part of this chapter considers the manner of South Korea
life quality improvement and promotion of its global status, and challenges
facing urban green growth plan like political gap, administrative and executive
issues and informational gap.