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:: Dr. Pourzarandi, the president of Iran Urban Economics Scientific Association (IUESA): ::
 | Post date: 2017/04/19 | 

Reducing air pollution and saving fuel by intelligent transport

IUESA: Explaining the challenges facing urban transport infrastructures, Dr. Pourzarandi, the president of Iran Urban Economics Scientific Association (IUESA) said, today, transport and traffic are related with all pillars of urban life and areas such as leisure time, education, business, production, industry require sustainable transport.    AWT IMAGE

Noting that proper transport is one of the pillars of sustainable development, he added most problems facing cities and quality of urban life are associated with transport as air pollution is main challenge of our metropolises.

Considering waste of resources as one of the other deficiencies of unsustainable transport systems in cities, he further said this amount is so that its impact can be measured on economic growth in the country.

Saying that development of satellite cities near metropolises has made urban transport more important, he said nearly 400 thousand automobiles are added to Tehran streets.  

Stressing that the only solution is intelligent transportation systems (ITS), he added infrastructures of Tehran metropolis are at standard level, but infrastructure development cannot meet challenges of this area alone.

Regarding ITS as one of the main solution to improve urban transport, he said Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are advanced applications aim to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and 'smarter' use of transport networks. They are considered a part of the Internet of things resulting in cost reduction.

The use of these systems will lead to saving in energy, time, increasing safety, and reducing accidents, he said.

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:: Dr. Pourzarandi, President of Iran Urban Economics Scientific Association (IUESA) ::
 | Post date: 2017/04/3 | 

Sustainable employment key for sustainable economy

The Supreme Leader promulgated general policies of employment in 2011 and he emphasized on this issue in the form of resistance economy, but he particularly used the keyword of employment. Yet, we should consider why he has accentuated on this matter.

Employment is a socio-economic reality, but its economic aspect is more important; therefore, any policy that ignores economic logic of employment will be failed.   AWT IMAGE

Unemployment is a global issue. While the growth rate of the world GDP was 3.1 percent in 2016 and 3.4 percent growth rate is predicted for 2017 unemployment rate is still high and this figure will be 5.8 percent in 2017. It is estimated that 3.4 million will be added to the world unemployed people and there would be 201 million jobless globally.

Unemployment increase will be much more severe in emerging economies because of the deep recession in 2016. For instance, Brazil would experience unemployment rate of 8.4 percent in 2017 while unemployment rate will be reduced in developed countries in 2017 compared to the last year.

In addition to global unemployment, the issue of vulnerable jobs is important as well. Currently, 1.4 billion vulnerable employments exist in the world. 4 out of 5 employed people have vulnerable jobs in developing countries. Half of workers in the South Asia and Africa earn less than 3 USD. Moreover, inequality and gap between age groups in employment and injustice between men and women employment should be regarded. In developing countries, youth unemployment wastes economic opportunities one after another leading to social instability. For example, youth unemployment is 26 percent in the Africa, 24 percent in the Middle East, and 22%in the CIS countries.

Joblessness is a critical issue in our country, particularly youth unemployment. It is nearly 12.5 percent and this figure is more than 31 percent among 20 to 24 year-old young people. One the other hand, there is no balance between different economic sectors. This means that 50.6 percent worked in service sector, 32.1 percent in industry, and 17.3 in agricultural sector unlike developed countries that employment is higher in industry sector. It seems that employment issue requires a fundamental solution and short-term sectional policies will not lead to a great change.

In addition to high unemployment, low rate of labor productivity is also a major problem. Raising wages is achieved by increasing productivity.  Supporting employment, without increasing labor productivity and efficiency, is considered as inefficient policy. Productivity is the engine of the economy. As Paul Krugman, Nobel laureate and economist, said, Productivity is not everything, but in the long run, it is almost everything. Productivity means working smarter instead of working harder. Thus, productivity of labor force should be paid more than before beside employment

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:: Dr. Pourzarandi, the president of Iran Urban Economics Scientific Association (IUESA): ::
 | Post date: 2017/03/26 | 

The capacity of cities to implement the slogan of New Iranian Year of 1396 / small enterprises and urban entrepreneurship; key for urban production and employment

IUESA: Referring to the naming of 1396 by the Supreme Leader as “Economy of Resistance; production-employment,” Dr. Pourzarandi, the president of Iran Urban Economics Scientific Association (IUESA) said his reemphasis on economic issues and people’s livelihood indicate gap between ideal and current situation about economic issues in the country.            AWT IMAGE

Saying that the Supreme Leader has introduced domestic product and employment as key components in the country, Dr. Pourzarandi said the importance of this issue led this year to be named as “economy of resistance; production-employment” by the Supreme Leader.

As the Supreme Leader asserted, success and efficiency in implementation of resistance economy policies will be obvious when it is tangible.

Noting that the most tangible ones are welfare, employment, and family’s costs, he said if we want to evaluate the government’s performance in improvement of people’s livelihood based on resistance economy, we should analyze the performance according to indicators and variables of unemployment rate, family’s costs, Gini coefficient, and inflation rate.

Looking at statistics, increase in unemployment rate in urban and rural areas of the country will be evident that is contrary to paragraph 1 of general policies of resistance economy, he said.

Generally, it can be stated that costs of household expenditures have been drawn from food to non-food costs and mainly housing and transport. This means that people, particularly poor classes of the society, spend on non-food needs instead of food, indicating poverty development in economic, social and even feeding aspects in urban communities, he added.

Referring to the capacity of cities to accomplish the slogan, he said globally, metropolises are development engines, and there is a capacity for Iran’s cities to be influential in economic growth and development in 1396.

Emphasizing that the share of cities in countries’ GDP is usually more than their population, he added city managers can formulate the package of production and employment in cities with the help of responsible organizations, and supporting small enterprises and urban creativity should be put on the agenda.

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:: Tabatabaei Mozdabadi: ::
 | Post date: 2017/03/5 | 

5% increase of employment in cities by 10% growth of entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship is activities and measures that a creative person tries to do by taking advantage of personal creativity and ideation power, resources, capacities, and infrastructures to create value added and produce goods and services based on current and future needs, he said at the conference on “the position of resistance economy in urban development and entrepreneurship.”

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Saying that entrepreneurship is counted as the main source of economic growth in national and local economies, he added one of the factors that should be identified and determined in economic growth of countries, as an important factor is entrepreneurship.

Regarding urban entrepreneurship as one of the most important aspects of entrepreneurship that is achieved in urban context and by considering municipal relations and facilities, he further said currently, the world moves toward urbanization and its rate is two times more than global average in Iran. According to Iran’s Statistical Center, more than 73 percent of people lived in cities in 2011.

Emphasizing that unemployment rate fluctuated between 14.3 and 10.3 percent during 2000 to 2004 and there was no specific trend in this rate, he said unemployment rate in cities is worse than villages indicating more crime and violence in cities rather villages.

Adding that unemployment rate increased to 11 percent in the country in 2015 rather 2014 that it was 12.2 percent in cities and 8.1 percent in villages, he said unemployment rate reached 12.7 percent this summer and this rate was recorded 14.4 percent in urban areas and 7.9 percent in rural areas.  

Dealing with the relationship between urban entrepreneurship and improvement of urban economy, he added according to the researches, nearly 1 to 1.5 percent urban employment and 2.5 to 3.5 percent urban revenue increase by 10 percent urban entrepreneurship in the cities of developed countries on average.

Regarding the potential and unapplied capacities in the economy of Iran’s cities, it seems that by 10% growth of urban entrepreneurship will result in 4 to 5 % increase of employment in cities and 7 to 8 percent increase in urban revenue on average, the expert said.

Referring to the relationship between entrepreneurship and implementation of resistance economy in urban context, Tabatabaei said one of the most important topics of resistance economy is entrepreneurship and creation of productive employment in the country.

Attention to knowledge-based entrepreneurship, increase in social equity in cities, and supporting domestic product are some of the most important components of resistance economy in urban space with approach to urban entrepreneurship, Tabatabaei said.

It is noteworthy that the book on “good urban governance” written by Dr. Mohammad Hossein Pourzarandi and Seyyed Mohsen Tabatabaei Mozdabadi was unveiled at this event.

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:: Meeting of IUESA ::
 | Post date: 2017/03/1 | 

The 12th meeting of B.D. of IUESA in 2017

IUESA: At this meeting, measures in line with the second international conference on urban economy were reported. A report of technical meetings of IUESA in the fields of resistance economy, scientific and specialized information reports, increase in international cooperation, entrance to start-ups to develop urban economy were the most important topics discussed at this meeting.

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